As allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is increasingly offered to older adults, geriatric assessments (GA) have been identified as a useful tool for predicting outcomes, particularly functional status. However, very few studies have examined the longitudinal change in GA measures in the post-alloHCT period.
The objectives of this study are to 1) describe the longitudinal change in GA and QOL measures after alloHCT and to 2) identify predictors of greater functional decline post-transplant.
In this single-center prospective cohort study, patients aged 50 years or older planning to undergo alloHCT completed a cancer-specific GA and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) survey at baseline prior to alloHCT and then at 3, 6, and 12 months after transplant. Changes in GA and QOL measures at each post-transplant time point (3, 6, or 12 months) compared to baseline were analyzed using paired t-tests. Exploration of potential predictors of greater post-transplant functional decline, as measured by instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and Medical Outcomes Study Physical Health scale (MOS-PH), were examined using linear regressions and chi-squared two-sample test of proportions.
Mean functional status generally exhibited a pattern of decline at 3 to 6 months post-alloHCT, with recovery to near baseline by 12 months. Mean mental health and emotional QOL were lowest at baseline and improved at all time points post-transplant. Differences in baseline clinical characteristics were not associated with any differences in functional trajectories. Differences in baseline GA measures (patient-rated KPS, IADL, MOS-PH, Timed-Up-and-Go, Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration test, Mental Health Inventory 5) also did not predict greater functional decline at 3 months. Patients whose IADL was improved or maintained at 3 months generally maintained their functional status at 6 and 12 months. Similarly, most patients who had IADL decline at 3 months still had functional decline at 6 months, though a portion did have functional recovery by 12 months. Compared to those with improved/maintained IADL at 3 months, those with declined IADL at 3 months were significantly more likely to have persistent functional decline at 6 months (p<0.0001) and 12 months (p=0.02).
In older alloHCT patients, mean functional status declines short-term after alloHCT with possibility of recovery by 6 to 12 months, while mean mental and emotional health improve post-alloHCT. Functional decline at 3 months post-alloHCT is associated with persistent functional decline at 12 months.

Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Inc.