In the setting of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD), pedal arch interrogation by ultrasound has not been well described. Patients with non-compressible vessels and/or open wounds of the foot may preclude the use of ankle-brachial indices, toe pressure measurements, or TcPO2, respectively. We propose that pedal artery interrogations with Pedal Acceleration Time (PAT) can be a predictor for limb salvage in patients with Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia (CLTI).
A retrospective review of a prospectively kept database was performed from 2018-2019. Patients with pending amputation due to severe infection (WIFI infection class 2 and 3) were excluded from the study. We identified 73 limbs with CLTI that fit the inclusion criteria. Data included WIFI classification, age, gender, cardiovascular risk factors, PAT, ABI, and TBI when reliable, were collected. PAT measurements were categorized into 4 classifications; 1 (40-120 msec), 2 (121-180 msec), 3 (181-224 msec), and 4 (Greater than 225 msec). Statistical analyses were performed.
Seventy-three limbs with CLTI were included in our study. All patients underwent arterial revascularization with either percutaneous technique or arterial bypass. Limb salvage was achieved in 59 (81%) of the 73 limbs. All 59 limbs had a 2-classification improvement in their PAT following interventions. 14 (19%) limbs without improvement in their PAT underwent above ankle level amputations. An improvement in PAT classes to class 1 or 2 is associated with limb salvage.
Patients with non-compressible ankle pressures or non-obtainable toe pressures poses a challenge in the complete assessment of WIFI classification. Our group has shown that PAT can be used in the scoring system for severity of ischemia in conjunction with current WIFI classification. Our data suggests that limb salvage correlates with post procedure PAT in category 1 and 2. Therefore we propose that PAT be added as part of the WIFI classification.

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