Despite the introduction of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) AIDS-related Kaposi Sarcoma (AIDS-KS) remains the most common malignancy in HIV positive patients. In advanced stage or progressive forms, chemotherapy (CT) in combination with cART is the treatment of choice. The aim of the study is to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin (PLD) as first line CT in AIDS-KS. In this single institution retrospective study PLD (20 mg/m2 IV every 2 weeks for 6 or 12 cycles) in combination with cART was administered in poor risk and some cases of good prognosis or limited cutaneous disease. Response rate and adverse events to treatment was evaluated. We enrolled 33 patients with AIDS-KS: median age 44ys, male 90.9%, Caucasian 72.7%, cART-naïve (simultaneous diagnosis of HIV infection and KS) 84.4%, median lymphocyte CD4+ count 134cells, median HIV viral load 4.9 log10 copies/ml. 32 patients were assigned to a Poor Risk KS stage. Grade 3-4 toxicity was reported in 9 patients. No cardiovascular events or severe sepsis were described. Complete response was reported in 25 of 31 patients evaluable for efficacy. After a median follow-up of 52 months the 3-years PFS was 68.6%. PLD associated with cART is an effective, feasible and well tolerated first-line CT in advanced AIDS-KS.