The purpose of this investigation was to summarize current research on diagnosis, outcomes, and management of frail patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Because frail patients are at increased risk of negative post-operative outcomes including increased 30-day mortality and post-operative complications including infections and delirium, such a review is timely. Strategies including supervised exercise training programs before surgery, early identification of frailty, prophylactic antibiotics, regular drug chart review, regular monitoring of electrolytes, and other strategies to prevent post-operative delirium are helpful in the management of frail orthopedic patients. It is important for surgeons and anesthesiologists to take action in attempt to alleviate adverse post-operative outcomes in frail patients. Ultimately, more research is needed to identify new strategies and to evaluate whether pre-operative optimization can effectively mitigate post-operative outcomes in large-scale randomized controlled trials.© 2020 Professor P K Surendran Memorial Education Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.