Reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) is a noninvasive and simple test for evaluating the endothelial function. There has been sparse evidence on the usefulness of the RH-PAT index (RHI) in predicting future cardiovascular diseases among diabetic patients.
Asymptomatic diabetic patients with albuminuria were selected; their medical history and laboratory findings were evaluated every 3 to 4 months, respectively. The primary outcome was a composite of three-point major adverse cardiovascular events (3-point MACE): death from cardiovascular causes, acute coronary events, or nonfatal stroke. On the contrary, secondary outcomes included a composite of 3-point MACE, hospitalization for heart failure, or chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. RHI was measured using the Endo-PAT2000 at the baseline. RHI < 1.67 was considered to indicate peripheral endothelial dysfunction (PED).
In total, 149 subjects were included (mean age, 61.8 ± 9.2 years; duration of diabetes was 12 years). During the follow-up period (median, 49.7 months), of the 149 subjects, primary outcomes were detected in 12 (1 [2.3%] and 11 [10.5%] of those without and with PED, respectively). The presence of PED in baseline measurements significantly increased both primary and secondary outcomes, following adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, glycated hemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, overt proteinuria, duration of diabetes, premedical history of ischemic events, anti-platelet agents, and smoking history (hazard ratio [HR]: 10.95; 95% confidence interval CI 1.00-119.91 for the primary outcome; HR, 4.12; 95% CI 1.37-12.41 for secondary outcome). In addition, PED could predict secondary outcomes independent of the risk score according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (HR: 3.24; 95% CI 1.14-9.17).
PED can independently predict future cardiovascular events among diabetic patients with albuminuria.