Fungal periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a disruptive and complex complication of joint arthroplasty. We present a case of a fungal PJI with Candida parapsilosis after a total hip arthroplasty (THA).
A 73-year-old woman with a history of ovarian cancer with peritoneal metastases, was treated with a THA, due to symptomatic arthritis of the right hip. One month after surgery, she had difficulties walking. Inflammatory parameters were mildly increased. Aspiration of a subcutaneous abscess diagnosed Candida parapsilosis. A two-stage revision arthroplasty without spacer was performed. During a six-week prosthesis-free interval, intravenous fluconazole 400 mg was given. After reimplantation, fluconazole was continued for two weeks intravenously and life-long perorally. Follow-up of the patient after six months showed no recurrence of infection.
This case revealed that when PJI is suspected, a low treshold for joint aspiration is important. Two-stage revision with systematic antifungal therapy is the preferred treatment of fungal PJI. Our case demonstrated a good result with a prosthesis-free interval. Fluconazole is the preferred antifungal treatment and it should be applied for at least six months or longer.
To our knowledge, this is the first case of a fungal PJI with Candida parapsilosis after a THA treated with a two-stage revision arthroplasty without spacer and a life-long fluconazole treatment.

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