Effective management of both acute and chronic bronchial infections is mandatory due to their high frequency rate, the relevant morbidity and mortality and the significant burden to health care systems, especially with the aging of population. Bacteria are the main causative pathogens, followed by viruses, and less commonly by fungi. The clinical evaluation of new therapeutic associations is mandatory to cope with the increases in resistance, in association with better infection control and antimicrobial policies.
The authors searched Medline for any article published in English language up until March 1, 2020 that concerns the treatment of acute exacerbations and chronic infections in chronic obstructive respiratory disease and bronchiectasis.
As acute exacerbations are a main common and detrimental event in patients with COPD and bronchiectasis, effective antimicrobial therapies and regimens should be optimized. The development of new molecules or combination regimens is vital to patients with severe and/or difficult-to-treat infections. Moreover, chronic infection control is mandatory in these patients to their improve quality of life, respiratory function and prognosis as well as for reducing health care costs.