Recent work on US Whites from clinical samples used obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms to generate phenotypes for individuals with moderate-severe OSA which suggested 3 to 5 symptom classes. However, it is unknown whether similar classes generalize to diverse Hispanics/Latino adults. Therefore, we sought to fill this gap by empirically deriving sleep phenotypes among a large sample of diverse Hispanics/Latinos.
We used data from The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL; 2008-2011), a prospective cohort study designed using a multisite multistage probability sample of adults 18-74 years old. The subpopulation of interest included participants with moderate-severe OSA symptoms (≥15 respiratory event index (REI) events per hour; n=1,605). We performed latent class analysis for complex survey data using 15 common OSA symptoms (e.g. Epworth Sleepiness Scale) and four comorbidities to identify phenotype classes.
Average age was 52.4 ± 13.9 years and 34.0% were female. Mean respiratory event index was 33.8 ± 22.5 events per hour. Fit statistics and clinical significance suggested that a three-class solution provided best fit to the data. The three phenotypes were: 1) Minimally Symptomatic (47.7%), 2) Excessive sleepiness (37.1%), and (3) Disturbed Sleep (15.2%). Sensitivity models were consistent with main proposed solution.
Derived sleep phenotypes among diverse Hispanic/Latinos were consistent with recent findings from the Sleep Apnea Global Interdisciplinary Consortium, but we found notable differences in class prevalence relative to Whites. Further research is needed to link derived sleep phenotypes to health comorbidities in diverse populations.

© Sleep Research Society 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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