Glycopyrronium bromide, a synthetic anticholinergic agent used to treat patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is eliminated from the body by renal excretion and therefore systemic exposure is expected to be increased in patients with decreasing renal function. Despite enrollment of patients with decreasing renal function to evaluate the impact of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of glycopyrronium in clinical studies, no patients with severe renal impairment were included. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in patients with COPD with normal renal function and used to predict systemic exposure of glycopyrronium in patients with severe renal impairment. The model accurately predicted plasma concentration-time profiles in patients with normal renal function, and mild and moderate renal impairment; the predicted and observed AUC and C in these populations were similar. Compared to patients with normal renal function, a 1.20-, 1.45-, and 1.59-fold increase AUC was predicted in patients with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment, respectively, suggesting dose adjustment is not necessary in patients with renal impairment. In conclusion, PBPK models, verified with clinical study data from patients with normal renal function, can potentially be used to predict the pharmacokinetics and recommended dose adjustment for patients with renal impairment.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.