1. Which of the following is a finding of the study for which researchers tested associations between age-specific diet and case-control status among adults aged 18 and older with recent-onset MS and matched controls?
a) Consuming fruit and yogurt during childhood and adolescence was linked to a lower risk of later developing MS.
b) Consuming vegetables during childhood and adolescence was linked to a lower risk of later developing MS.
c) Consuming red meat during childhood and adolescence was linked to a higher risk of later developing MS.
d) Consuming complex carbohydrates during childhood and adolescence was linked to a higher risk of later developing MS.
The answer is A. Vitamin D in Childhood a Factor in Adult-Onset MS
2. In the study for which 20 patients with MS-related gait deficits were randomized 1:1 to the Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator (PoNS) device or a sham device, the PoNS group on average achieved improvement in their Dynamic Gait Index score of what?
The answer is C. New Neuromuscular Stimulator for MS Patients with Gait Deficits
3. Which of the following is NOT a finding of the study that investigated the role of axon-myelin morphological changes in MS development?
a) The swelling detection in the control group was substantially less frequent than that of patients with MS.
b) The myelin detachment from axons in MS patients showed blister-like swellings.
c) In patients with MS, myelin had significant citrullinated protein increase, indicating biochemical modifications leading to amplified immunogenicity.
d) Ranvier node widening, tethering protein expression changes, and sodium channel distribution alterations in nodal regions were not observed in controls or patients with MS.
The answer is D. How Axon-Myelin Morphs as MS Develops
4. Which of the following is a finding of the study for which researchers sought to determine the feasibility and potential assessment sensitivity of EVO Monitor—an unsupervised, adaptive, digital tablet game—to assess cognition in patients with MS?
a) Patients with both MS and cognitive impairment (CI) performed worse on EVO Monitor than participants without MS but no worse than patients with MS without CI.
b) EVO Monitor is a potential approach to measuring cognitive performance in patients with MS.
c) Associations between performance on EVO Monitor and standard cognitive measures were not observed.
d) A slower walking speed was associated with a better EVO Monitor performance.
The answer is B. Assessing Cognition in MS with a Game