Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit altered placental lipid metabolism. The molecular basis of this altered metabolism is not clear. Altered placental expression of proteins of lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation may be involved in the placental accumulation of triacylglycerols (TG). The present study was aimed at investigating the differential expressions of placental proteins related to lipid metabolism among GDM women in comparison with control pregnant women (CPW) and to correlate them with maternal and fetal lipid parameters as well as altered fetal growth.
Maternal blood, cord blood, and placental samples were collected from GDM and CPW. The biochemical parameters, glucose, lipid profile and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured. The placental TG content was measured. Differential placental expressions of proteins; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) p85α, PI3K p110α,liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), sterol regulatory element binding protein1(SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearyl CoA desaturase1 (SCD1), lipoprotein lipase (LPL),Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α and PPARγ were analysed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
Placental protein expressions of PI3K p110α, LXRα, FAS, SCD1, and LPL were found to be significantly higher, whereas PPARα and PPARγ were lower in GDM women compared with CPW. The placental TG content and cord plasma FFA were increased in GDM women compared with CPW. The placental TG content positively correlated with Ponderal index of GDM new-borns.
Differential expressions of placental proteins related to lipid metabolism in GDM might have led to placental TG accumulation. This might have contributed to the fetal overgrowth in GDM.

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