Platelet indices as a predictive marker in neonatal sepsis and respiratory distress in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.
Preterm Prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) accompanies 2-3% of all pregnancies and 1/3rd of all preterm deliveries leading to intraamniotic infection, postpartum infections, sepsis along with perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent the complications of PPROM and improve mother and child health. The platelet indices (platelet count, Mean platelet volume, Plateletcrit and Immature platelet fraction) could be a useful predictive parameters in PPROM, as platelets are acute phase reactants and there parameters may vary with inflammation and increased platelet consumption/production. In the present study, Mean Platelet volume (MPV) levels showed significant increase in cases as compared to controls (10.47 ± 1.92 fl Vs 8.84 ± 1.30 fl; P < 0.004). Plateletcrit (PCT) levels were also significantly increased in cases with respect to controls (0.22 ± 0.10% Vs 0.18 ± 0.05%; P = 0.004). Immature platelet fraction (IPF) is significantly increased in cases than in control subjects (8.73 ± 6.67% Vs 4.43 ± 1.75%; P < 0.001). Also, Mean Platelet volume (MPV) levels were found to be significantly higher in subjects whose neonate had developed sepsis(11.39 ± 1.69 fl Vs 8.91 ± 1.31 fl; P < 0.001) and respiratory distress (10.62 ± 2.09 fl Vs 9.26 ± 1.56 fl; P = 0.003). Similarly, PCT was significantly higher in groups with positive neonatal sepsis (0.32 ± 0.74% Vs 0.19 ± 0.65%; P = 0.010) and with respiratory distress (0.24 ± 0.78% Vs 0.18 ± 0.59%; P < 0.001). Levels of IPF were also increased in positive neonatal sepsis group (10.11 ± 6.27% Vs 5.06 ± 4.07%; P < 0.001) and respiratory distress group (9.11 ± 6.38% Vs 5.54 ± 4.43%; P = 0.009). The findings suggest that maternal platelet parameters (MPV, PCT and IPF) can be utilized as evidence of early predictors of development of neonatal sepsis and respiratory distress and may be considered as a predictive markers for adverse neonatal outcome.