Although observational studies have shown percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure to be a safe means of reducing the frequency and duration of migraine, randomized clinical trials have not met their primary efficacy endpoints.
The authors report the results of a pooled analysis of individual participant data from the 2 randomized trials using the Amplatzer PFO Occluder to assess the efficacy and safety of percutaneous device closure as a therapy for episodic migraine with or without aura.
The authors analyzed individual patient-level data from 2 randomized migraine trials (the PRIMA [Percutaneous Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale in Migraine With Aura] and PREMIUM [Prospective Randomized Investigation to Evaluate Incidence of Headache Reduction in Subjects with Migraine and PFO Using the Amplatzer PFO Occluder Compared to Medical Management] studies). Efficacy endpoints were mean reduction in monthly migraine days, responder rate (defined as ≥50% reduction in monthly migraine attacks), mean reduction in monthly migraine attacks, and percentage of patients who experienced complete cessation of migraine. The safety endpoint was major procedure- and device-related adverse events.
Among 337 subjects, 176 were randomized by blocks to device closure and 161 to medical treatment only. At 12-month follow-up, the analysis met 3 of the 4 efficacy endpoints: mean reduction of monthly migraine days (-3.1 days vs. -1.9 days; p = 0.02), mean reduction of monthly migraine attacks (-2.0 vs. -1.4; p = 0.01), and number of subjects who experienced complete cessation of migraine (14 [9%] vs. 1 [0.7%]; p < 0.001). For the safety analysis, 9 procedure-related and 4 device-related adverse events occurred in 245 subjects who eventually received devices. All events were transient and resolved.
This pooled analysis of patient-level data demonstrates that PFO closure was safe and significantly reduced the mean number of monthly migraine days and monthly migraine attacks, and resulted in a greater number of subjects who experienced complete migraine cessation.