Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is an unusual form of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Surgical management is essential; however, adjuvant therapy is recommended for advanced stages of cancer.
A 40-year-old woman with textured silicone implants placed 7 years earlier, presented with breast nodules. Physical examination and computed tomography (CT) revealed a left parasternal mass, 2 left-breast nodules, and axillary lymphadenopathies. A soft-tissue lesion in the anterior mediastinum consistent with thymic remnants was detected. BIA-ALCL was diagnosed based on ultrasound-guided core biopsies of an axillary lymph node and a breast nodule. She underwent total bilateral capsulectomy and received anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. End-of-treatment positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan at 4 months showed no evidence of disease, except for the persistence of the mediastinal lesion (Deauville score 4). Three months later, a new PET-CT scan showed enlargement of the lesion and increased radiotracer uptake, suggesting metabolic progression. A mediastinal biopsy was performed and rebound thymic hyperplasia (RTH) was observed in the histopathologic study. Once complete remission (CR) was achieved, the patient was followed up continually and has shown no signs of relapse to date.
Further studies are required to determine the best adjuvant therapy for advanced BIA-ALCL. RTH may be suspected when thymic enlargement without the involvement of other areas is observed in patients with cancer. Mediastinal biopsy is mandatory to rule out relapse.

© 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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