This study examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and assessed mental illness via an online survey among healthcare workers (HCWs) at the Central Hospital of Wuhan after the peak of the COVID-19 outbreak. PTSD symptoms were measured using the PTSD Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C), with a cutoff score of 50. Among the 642 HCWs, the prevalence of probable PTSD was 20.87%. Additionally, 88.88%, 82.09%, 100%, and 95.52% of HCWs with probable PTSD reported varying degrees of anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, and insomnia, respectively. HCWs with probable PTSD scored higher on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Patient Health questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) than non-PTSD HCWs (all p < 0.05). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that HCWs with negative COVID-19 tests (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.21-0.58; p < 0.00), those with high Social Support Self-Rating Scale (SSRS) scores (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.17-0.52; p < 0.00), and HCWs whose family members tested negative (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.96; p = 0.03) were less likely to have probable PTSD. This study found a high prevalence of probable PTSD and severe mental illness among local HCWs. Our finding emphasizes the need to provide mental health support for HCWs.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.