: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) rates and outcomes are worse in Latin American countries relative to high-income countries. This study examined whether cognitive dysfunction, depressive mood, and poor social and emotional self-regulation in individuals with an acute TBI in Latin America predict longitudinal trajectories of caregiver burden during the first 4 months post-discharge.: A sample of 109 caregivers of individuals with a new TBI from Colombia and Mexico completed the observer European Brain Injury Questionnaire before hospital discharge and the Zarit Burden Inventory at the same time and again at 2 and 4 months after discharge. A hierarchical linear model (HLM) was used to assess whether cognitive dysfunction, depressive mood, and poor social and emotional self-regulation at hospital discharge predicted longitudinal trajectories of caregiver burden.: Results suggested that burden trajectories decreased over time and men reported higher burden than women. Additionally, results showed that poor patient social and emotional self-regulation predicted higher burden trajectories.: Men and caregivers providing care for those experiencing poor social and emotional self-regulation may be at risk for burden. Culturally sensitive interventions focusing on social functioning of individuals with TBI and gender-informed caregiver interventions aimed at burden should be implemented in Latin America.