In acute portal vein thrombosis (PVT), a six-month anticoagulation treatment achieves complete recanalization in only 35%-45% of patients, but the predictors of poor treatment responses are unclear. We examined treatment outcomes in PVT and aimed to identify predictors of incomplete recanalization and portal hypertensive complications.
This retrospective study comprised patients diagnosed with PVT between 2006 and 2015. Key exclusion criteria were liver cirrhosis, malignancy, and age <18.
The final cohort comprised 145 patients, of whom 132 (92%) were primarily treated with anticoagulation. The 5-year cumulative incidence of complete recanalization was 42% and of portal hypertensive complications, 31%. Independent predictors of insufficient recanalization were sub-acute or chronic thrombosis (hazard ratio (HR) 3.1, 95% CI 1.6-5.8), while acute pancreatitis was a protective factor (HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 - 0.7). Independent predictors of incident portal hypertensive complications were as cites at baseline (HR 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-6.7), sub-acute or chronic thrombosis (HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.3), extension of thrombosis to the splenic or mesenteric vein (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7), myeloproliferative disease (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.5), and anemia (HR 2.1, 95% 1.1-3.9), while acute pancreatitis was a protective factor (HR 0.1, 95% CI 0.03-0.5).
Etiology and age of thrombosis are associated with treatment responses in PVT. The presence of ascites at baseline, etiology, and extent of thrombosis, a non-acute thrombosis and anemia, are associated with the risk of portal hypertensive complications. Etiology and extent of thrombosis should be taken into account when determining the treatment (method) for PVT.