In humans, all but 1% of monosomy 45.X embryos die in utero and those who reach term suffer from congenital abnormalities and infertility, termed Turner’s syndrome (TS). By contrast, XO female mice on various genetic backgrounds show much milder physical defects and normal fertility, diminishing their value as an animal model for studying the infertility of TS patients. In the current paper, we report that XO mice on the C57BL/6J (B6) genetic background showed early oocyte loss, infertility or subfertility, and high embryonic lethality, suggesting that the effect of monosomy X in the female germline may be shared between mice and humans. First, we generated XO mice on either a mixed N2(C3H.B6) or B6 genetic background and compared the number of oocytes in neonatal ovaries; N2.XO females retained 45% of the number of oocytes in N2.XX females, whereas B6.XO females retained only 15% of that in B6.XX females. Second, while N2.XO females were as fertile as N2.XX females, both the frequency of pregnancy and the total number of pups delivered by B6.XO females were significantly lower than those of B6.XX females. Third, after mating with B6 males, both N2.XO and B6.XO females rarely produced XO pups carrying paternal X chromosomes, although a larger percentage of embryos was found to be XO before implantation. Furthermore, B6.XO females delivered 20% XO pups among female progeny after mating with C3H males. We conclude that the impact of monosomy X on female mouse fertility depends on the genetic background.© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.