The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of gestational exposure to low doses of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol F (BPF) on pregnancy outcomes and offspring development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with vehicle, 5 μg/kg body weight (BW)/day of BPA, BPS and BPF, or 1 μg/kg BW/day of BPF on gestational days 6-21. Pregnancy and gestational outcomes, including number of abortions and stillbirths, were monitored. Male and female offspring were subjected to morphometry at birth, followed by pre- and post-weaning body weights, post-weaning food and water intakes, and adult organ weights. Ovarian follicular counts were also obtained from adult female offspring. We observed spontaneous abortions in over 80% of dams exposed to 5 μg/kg of BPF. BPA exposure increased Graafian follicles in female offspring, while BPS and BPF exposure decreased the number of corpora lutea, suggesting reduced ovulation rates. Moreover, BPA exposure increased male kidney and prostate gland weights, BPF decreased epididymal adipose tissue weights, and BPS had modest effects on male abdominal adipose tissue weights. Prenatal BPS exposure reduced anogenital distance (AGD) in male offspring, suggesting possible feminization, whereas both BPS and BPA induced oxidative stress in the testes. These results indicate that prenatal exposure to BPF affects pregnancy outcomes, BPS alters male AGD, and all three bisphenols alter certain organ weights in male offspring and ovarian function in female offspring. Altogether, it appears that prenatal exposure to BPA or its analogues can induce reproductive toxicity even at low doses.
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