A growing percentage of the US population is over the age of 65, and geriatrics account for a large portion of trauma admissions, expected to reach nearly 40% by 2050. Cognitive status is important for operative management, especially in elderly populations. This study aims to investigate preoperative and postoperative cognitive function assessment tools in geriatric patients following acute trauma and associated outcomes, including functional status, postdischarge disposition, mortality, and hospital length of stay (H-LOS).
A literature search was conducted using Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, JAMA Networks, and Cochrane databases for studies investigating the use of cognitive assessment tools for geriatric patients with acute trauma. The last literature search was conducted on November 13, 2021.
Ten studies were included in this review, of which five focused on preoperative cognitive assessment and five focused on postoperative. The evidence suggests patients with preoperative cognitive impairment had worse functional status, mortality, and postdischarge disposition along with increased LOS. Acute trauma patients with postoperative cognitive impairment also had worse functional status, mortality, and adverse postdischarge disposition.
Preoperative and postoperative cognitive impairment is common in geriatric patients with acute trauma and is associated with worse outcomes, including decreased functional status, increased LOS, and adverse discharge disposition. Cognitive assessment tools such as MMSE, MoCA, and CAM are fast and effective at detecting cognitive impairment in the acute trauma setting and allow clinicians to address preoperative or postoperative cognitive impairments to improve patient outcomes.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.