Inappropriate medication use poses a sizable health safety hazard in the elderly owing to aging-associated physiological and anatomic changes. Inappropriate drug prescribing and polypharmacy in this population elevates the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADR). To assess the prevalence and predictors of Potentially Inappropriate Medication (PIM) use in elderly patients according to updated Beers Criteria 2019.
Medical Records of 402 patients aged ≥65 years admitted a tertiary care hospital from June 2018 to May 2019 were analyzed. The patients who experienced at least one PIM based on the 2019 Updated Beers Criteria were considered as cases and others as control. Data were presented as descriptive statistics and logistic regression was performed to assess the factors affecting the outcomes.
The mean age was found to be 73.7 ±6.4 years in the test and 70.5±5.5 years in the control group. The prevalence of PIMs to be used with caution was found to be 54%. Whereas the prevalence of PIMs to be avoided and to be used with reduced dose was found to be 45% and 1% respectively. The most prescribed PIMs were aspirin, diuretics, long-acting sulfonylureas, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Increasing age, polypharmacy, and the number of drugs in medication history were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with a substantial risk of PIM use. The risk of developing serious and moderate drug-drug interactions (DDIs) was significantly high in the test group (P<0.05) when compared to the control group.
A high prevalence of PIMs was observed in this study. Age, polypharmacy and ≥3 drugs in medication history were identified as risk factors for PIM use and were at a higher risk of developing DDIs. Continuous medication review by clinical pharmacists can aid in reducing the occurrence of PIMs amongst geriatrics.

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