Prevalence of Acute Coronary Syndrome and Various Risk Factors in Acute Stroke Patients.
Background Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Both diseases share many risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking. Patients who experience acute coronary syndrome are at heightened risk of recurrent ischemic events such as ischemic strokes, one of the most feared cardiovascular events because of the risk of long-term disability. We tried to estimate the prevalence of underlying ACS among patients with acute stroke. Methods This cross-sectional study was done at the CPE Institute of Cardiology, Pakistan, and Nishtar Medical University and Hospital, Pakistan. A total of 160 acute stroke cases were selected by consecutive sampling technique and questionnaire forms were filled. Detailed history, investigations, and physical examinations were done. The primary outcome was the prevalence of ACS and secondary outcomes were the prevalence of hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and previous history of stroke in stroke patients. Results Most of the patients that presented to us were above 50 years of age with the mean age of 62 years (SD = 9.23 years). Male predominance was seen with a total of 115 (72%) cases. Out of 160 patients, 91 (57%, p < 0.05) had underlying ACS, with 45 cases (49%) with unstable angina, 20 (22%) with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and 26 (29%) with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Prevalence of risk factors in 160 cases were, hypertension (101, 63%), lack of exercise (91, 57%), smoking (70, 44%), diabetes mellitus (61, 38%), dyslipidemia (50, 31%). All these results were statistically significant (p 0.05). Conclusion Acute coronary syndrome is still frequently present in patients with acute stroke. The need of the hour is to manage ACS efficiently so that its deadly complications such as stroke can be prevented.Copyright © 2020, Rashid et al.