Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibody (AT1R-Ab) is a non-HLA antibody that has been reported to cause antibody-mediated rejection and graft loss in kidney transplantation. The prevalence of positive AT1R-Ab varies between 8% and 18% in different regions. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of AT1R-Ab among the Malaysian population.
All sera for AT1R-Ab were collected at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The sera were centrifuged and kept refrigerated at -80 °C before being transported to the South Australian Transplantation and Immunogenetics Laboratory (SATIS). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (One Lambda) was used for the detection of AT1R-Ab, and it was performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The level of >17.1 U/mL was considered to be AT1R-Ab positive; 10.0-17.1 U/mL at risk, and <10.0 U/mL negative.
A total of 115 samples were collected from 99 patients pre and post-kidney transplant recipients. From the pre-transplant sera (n = 68) 17.7% were positive, 35.3% were at risk and 47.0% were negative. The positive AT1R-Ab cohort were relatively younger, with a mean age of 34.7 ± 8.3 years old and statistically significant, with a p-value of 0.028. Among the sera that were tested positive, 19.0% were from the Chinese ethnicity, 6.7% from Malay and 16.7% from Indian. There was no difference in the rejection episodes, persistent or de novo HLA-DSA, and graft function between the group (AT1R-Ab negative vs AT1R-Ab at risk and positive) and the results were consistent in a model adjusted for all potential confounders.
The prevalence of positive (>17.1 U/mL) pre-transplant AT1R-Ab was 17.7% and 35.3% were at risk (10.0-17.1 U/mL) in our pre-transplant cohort.
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