To describe the prevalence and relative risk of diabetes in the population with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.
A retrospective study was carried out using the Primary Care Clinical Database (BDCAP) of the Ministry of Health. Relative risks (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for type1 (T1D) and type2 (T2D) diabetes.
In the group of 2,596,041 hypothyroid patients, we found an OR of 1.77 (95%CI: 1.75-1.80) for T1D, and 1.77 (95%CI: 1.76-1.78) for T2D. This elevated risk was observed in both men and women. Hypothyroid people over 65years of age had a near neutral risk of T1D (0.96 [95%CI: 0.94-0.99]) and T2D (0.99 [95%CI: 0.98-0.99]). Hypothyroid patients receiving replacement therapy showed a higher risk of T1D (1.32 [95%CI: 1.28-1.36]) and T2D (1.23 [95%CI: 1.22-1.24]) compared to untreated hypothyroid patients. In the group of 418,772 people with hyperthyroidism, an increased risk of T1D (1.66 [95%CI: 1.60-1.72]) and T2D (1.71 [95%CI: 1.70-1.73]) was also noticed. This risk was observed in both sexes. Those over 65years of age did not present a high risk of T1D (0.89 [95%CI: 0.83-0.95]) and their risk of T2D was close to neutrality (1.03 [95%CI: 1.02-1.05]). Hyperthyroid patients treated with antithyroid agents had a higher risk of T1D (1.26 [95%CI: 1.14-1.40]) and T2D (1.32 [95%CI: 1.28-1.36]) than those without therapy.
People registered in BDCAP of both sexes, under 65years of age, with thyroid dysfunction have an increased risk of suffering from diabetes, especially those on thyroid medication.

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