To describe the prevalence of extra-articular manifestations-enthesitis, dactylitis, nail disease, uveitis and IBD-in PsA, and their impact on longitudinal disease outcomes.
We searched Medline, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using a predefined protocol in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies using imaging to define extra-articular manifestations (EAMs) were excluded. Where possible, we performed meta-analyses of prevalence estimates, reported as percentages (95% CI). Heterogeneity (I2 statistic) was examined according to study characteristics.
We identified 65 studies amounting to a total of 163 299 PsA patients. Enthesitis was assessed in 29 studies with an average prevalence of 30% (95% CI: 24%, 38%). Dactylitis was reported in 35 studies with an average prevalence of 25% (95% CI: 20%, 31%). Nail disease was present in 60% (95% CI: 52%, 68%) across 26 studies, but definitions were often unclear. Uveitis (3.2%; 95% CI: 1.9%, 5.3%) and IBD (3.3%; 95% CI: 1.5%, 7.1%) were less common. Heterogeneity was high (>95%) in all meta-analyses, but could not be explained by study characteristics. No studies examined the impact of EAMs on longitudinal disease outcomes, except that dactylitis increases radiographic progression.
Enthesitis, dactylitis and nail disease are highly prevalent in PsA, but not uveitis and IBD. EAM patterns differ from axial SpA despite their shared disease mechanisms, which may help further understand differences between spondyloarthritides. More studies are needed on the impact of EAMs on disease outcomes such as response to treatment.

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