The ageing of population is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of chronic diseases, including ophthalmic. The progression of ophthalmologic disturbances has population specificity and its analysis in Russian population is relevant.
To study the prevalence and age- and gender-related gradient of ophthalmic diseases (cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy) in the Russian population older than 50 years.
A random population cohort (9360, aged 45-69 years) was examined in Novosibirsk in 2003/05 and re-examined in 2015/17 (the HAPIEE project). Ophthalmological parameters were studied in a random subsample (324 m/f, aged 55-84, 2015/17). Clinical and instrumental methods were applied to assess eye diseases: cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), hypertensive retinopathy (HR) and other ophthalmic diseases.
In the studied sample of men and women aged 55-84 years, the prevalence of cataract was 72.8%, AMD – 25.7%, glaucoma – 6.2%, DR – 2.1%, HR – 79.6%. The prevalence of other ophthalmic diseases (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, pterygium, pinguecula, dystrophy of cornea and retina, tumors and inflammatory diseases) was 13.5%. The frequency of cataract (<0.001) and AMD (=0.003) significantly increased with age. The frequency of glaucoma did not change substantially in the studied age range with insignificant increase in those older than 80 years (14.3%). The frequency of DR and HR were not consistently related to age.
In the studied population sample of men and women aged 55-84 years (Novosibirsk), the prevalence of cataract and HR is high; the prevalence of AMD is similar to populations with moderate frequency of diseases; the frequency of glaucoma is close to populations with high prevalence of this disease. The frequency of cataract and AMD increased with age. There was no consistent age gradient of the frequency of glaucoma, DR and HR in the age range of 55-84 years.