We retrospectively reviewed radiology reports of 1046 CT urograms performed for the indication of microscopic (43.7%) or gross hematuria (56.3%). Urological findings were categorized as negative, benign, or suspicious (pathologically confirmed) for malignancy.
Of 1046 CT urograms performed, 53.5% were negative, 36.4% were benign, and 10% were suspicious for malignancy. The most common benign finding was urolithiasis (22.3%). Overall, urinary tract malignancies were present in 3.6% of patients, and the rate was significantly higher ( < .001) for gross (5.8%) than microscopic hematuria (0.9%). CT urography identified 0.6% patients with upper urinary tract malignancies; the malignancy rate was significantly higher ( = .038) for gross (1%) than microscopic hematuria (0%), and no significant sex ( = 1.00; male = 0.6%, female = 0.6%) or age ( = .600; < 50 years = 0%, ≥ 50 years = 0.7%) differences were observed. Logistic regression revealed that being male was associated with gross hematuria (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92), and that both age and gross hematuria (ORs = 1.06 and 5.13, respectively) were associated with malignancy.
CT urography found no upper urinary tract malignancies in 99.4% of patients presenting with hematuria, including all patients with microscopic hematuria and those with gross hematuria <50 years old. Investigating these subgroups with CT urography may be unnecessary and result in increased patient morbidity and health-care costs.