Blood transfusion is an important supportive care in children; however, transfusion-associated adverse reactions (TARs) are a problem. Similar to adults, allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) and febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs) are major TARs, and the frequency of ATR caused by platelet concentrate (PC) tends to be particularly high. The plasma component of the blood product is thought to be a major factor in the onset of TARs such as ATR and FNHTR. By contrast, in children, age, underlying disease, and number of blood transfusions may be relevant patient-related factors. Although acetaminophen or diphenhydramine may be used prophylactically to prevent TARs, there is no clear evidence of their effectiveness. Volume-reduced PC is used to prevent TARs; however, it may be difficult to maintain the quality of platelets. Plasma-replaced PC stored with platelet additive solution (PAS) raises the concern that TARs cannot be completely prevented by residual plasma. Since washed PC removes most of the plasma, it can effectively prevent ATR and FNHTR. The recent development of PAS (M-sol, BRS-A) in Japan has enabled the maintenance of the quality of platelets for long periods. Therefore, the clinical use of washed platelets in Japan has progressed. Washed PC with M-sol or BRS-A for pediatric patients can effectively prevent TARs without diminishing the transfusion effect. Presently, the supply of washed PC has begun from the Japanese Red Cross Society, and it has become possible to use washed PC at all medical institutions in Japan.
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