The cardiac stress testing, carotid duplex, coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring, myocardial perfusion imaging, coronary angiography, C-reactive protein (CRP), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), total serum cholesterol, duplex ultrasonography, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), computed tomography angiography (CTA), digital subtraction angiography, and ankle-brachial index (ABI) independently predict the risks and prognostic outcomes in asymptomatic cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients. The peripheral artery disease (PAD) screening guides the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of hemodynamically significant arterial stenosis, calcification, and malignant hypertension in patients with CVD without symptoms. The 79% sensitivity and 96% specificity of ABI screening, 90% sensitivity and 97% specificity of MRA, and 95% sensitivity and 50% specificity of CTA for tracking arterial occlusion indicate the high prognostic value of these tests in the setting of CVD. The 85% specificity and 60-70% sensitivity of cardiac stress testing substantiate its suitability to determine asymptomatic CVD prognosis related to myocardial ischemia, heart failure, multivessel disease, and unstable angina. The carotid duplex ultrasound potentially identifies long-term mortality, stroke, atherosclerosis, plaque instability, and angiographic stenosis among asymptomatic CVD patients with 94% specificity and 90% sensitivity. The CAC scoring has a positive predictive value (PPV) of 45.7% for identifying aortic valve calcium and PPV of 79.3% for tracking thoracic artery calcium. The medical literature provides substantial evidence concerning the validity, reliability, and prognostic value of cardiovascular testing for asymptomatic patients. Future studies are needed to undertake detailed assessments of benefits versus adverse outcomes associated with the prospective scaling (of cardiovascular testing) across asymptomatic CVD patients.
Copyright © 2021, Emmanuel et al.