Pulmonary hypertension is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, the prognostic value of pulmonary hypertension in Chinese predialytic CKD patients is rarely reported. We evaluated the relevant factors and prognostic value of pulmonary hypertension in CKD patients.
This retrospective cohort study enrolled 1092 predialytic patients from The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University from May 1st, 2011, to December 31st, 2016. Data of interest were retrieved from electronic medical records. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) ≥ 35 mmHg by echocardiology. All participants were followed from the date of the first echocardiography examination. The primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. The secondary endpoint was end-stage renal disease (ESRD) defined as starting renal replacement therapy.
The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension was 15.9% in the study population. For CKD stage 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 4 and 5, the prevalence was 6.0%, 9.6%, 17.2%, 13.3%, 20.7% and 26.6%, respectively. Older age, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, anemia and higher pulse pressure were independently associated with pulmonary hypertension in CKD patients. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, pulmonary hypertension was the independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality, but not of all-cause mortality and ESRD.
Pulmonary hypertension is not rare in early CKD patients. Patients with older age, anemia, higher pulse pressure and compromised heart function were more likely to comorbid pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension maybe a sign of worse cardiovascular outcome in CKD patients.