Almost two decades ago, the sequencing of the human genome and high throughput technologies came to revolutionize the clinical and therapeutic approaches of patients with complex human diseases. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most frequent childhood malignancy, these technologies have enabled to characterize the genomic landscape of the disease and have significantly improved the survival rates of ALL patients. Despite this, adverse reactions from treatment such as toxicity, drug resistance and secondary tumors formation are still serious consequences of chemotherapy, and the main obstacles to reduce ALL-related mortality. It is well known that germline variants and somatic mutations in genes involved in drug metabolism impact the efficacy of drugs used in oncohematological diseases therapy. So far, a broader spectrum of clinically actionable alterations that seems to be crucial for the progression and treatment response have been identified. Although these results are promising, it is necessary to put this knowledge into the clinics to help physician make medical decisions and generate an impact in patients’ health. This review summarizes the gene variants and clinically actionable mutations that modify the efficacy of antileukemic drugs. Therefore, knowing their genetic status before treatment is critical to reduce severe adverse effects, toxicities and life-threatening consequences in ALL patients.Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.