Intraocular pressure reduction is the only available and evidence-based medical therapy for glaucoma. Currently, the first-line eye drops are prostaglandin analogues including latanoprost, travoprost, bimatoprost, and tafluprost. These drugs stimulate intraocular prostanoid false positive (FP) receptors and reduce intraocular pressure by increasing mainly uveoscleral aqueous outflow. For 2 decades since latanoprost was launched, no drug has been comparable in its efficacy. In 2018, a prostanoid EP2 agonist, omidenepag, was launched in Japan. Current FP agonists and EP2 agonists indicate comparable intraocular pressure reduction by stimulating prostanoid FP or EP2 receptors. However, their safety profiles are quite different because of the differences between the intracellular signaling pathways through their own receptors. Including these commercially available FP and EP2 receptor agonists, prostanoid receptors have a large potential to control intraocular pressure. In this review I will trace the history and development of FP and EP2 receptor agonists from their original function, and explain their potential as first-line drugs including elucidation of their efficacy and safety.
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