To estimate observed and relative survival of prostate cancer patients in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to examine the influence of age, stage at diagnosis and the Human Development Index (HDI).
In this comparative registry study, we selected a random sample of 1752 incident cases of malign prostatic neoplasm from 12 population-based cancer registries from 10 SSA countries, registered between 2005 and 2015. We analyzed the data using Kaplan-Meier and Ederer II methods to obtain outcome estimates and flexible Poisson regression modeling to calculate the excess hazards of death RESULTS: For the 1406 patients included in the survival analyses, 763 deaths occurred during 3614 person-years of observation. Of patients with known stage, 45.2% had stage IV disease, 31.2% stage III and only 23.6% stage I and II. The 1 and 5-year relative survival for the entire cohort was 78.0% (75.4-80.7) and 60.0% (55.7-64.6), while varying between the registries. Late presentation was associated with increased excess hazards and a 0.1 increase in the HDI was associated with a 20% lower excess hazard of death, while for age at diagnosis no association was found.
We found poor survival of SSA prostatic tumor patients, as well as high proportions of late stage presentation, which are associated with inferior outcome. This calls for investment in health-care systems and action regarding projects to raise awareness among the population to achieve earlier diagnosis and improve survival.

© 2021. The Author(s).