Gestational diabetes (GDM) is common in pregnancies due to the inflammation and oxidative stress-mediated insulin resistance. In the present study, GDM was induced in the Wistar rats by administering the streptozotocin to elucidate whether the administration of syringin (50 mg/kg/day) during pregnancy could improve maternal glycemia and protect against the complications of GDM. The animals were assessed for their morphological changes in the β-islets of Langerhans and their insulin-producing ability, inflammatory cytokine markers, and the involvement of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway using RT-PCR. The results demonstrated that the onset of GDM demonstrated pancreatic tissue degeneration in the islets of Langerhans with a significant increase in oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant enzymes. Besides, the mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, NF-Kβ p65; NLRP3 mRNA were profoundly increased in GDM rats compared to normal pregnant rats. On the other hand, syringin administered GDM rats abrogated the oxidative stress and attenuated the level of the inflammatory cytokines. Intriguingly, the decrease in TLR4 expression and the downstream molecules of MyD88, NF-κB, and NLRP3 were also observed in syringin administered GDM rats that indicate the insulin secretion stimulatory actions of syringin through the suppression of TLR4 signaling. These novel findings of the study provide evidence that syringin could be a probable candidate to be used in the treatment of gestational diabetes in the future.Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.