The eye is a multifaceted organ organized in several compartments with particular properties that reflect their diverse functions. The prevalence of ocular diseases is increasing, mainly because of its relationship with aging and of generalized lifestyle changes. However, the pathogenic molecular mechanisms of many common eye pathologies remain poorly understood. Considering the unquestionable importance of proteins in cellular processes and disease progression, proteomic techniques, such as protein microarrays, represent a valuable approach to analyze pathophysiological protein changes in the ocular environment. This technology enables to perform multiplex high-throughput protein expression profiling with minimal sample volume requirements broadening our knowledge of ocular proteome network in eye diseases.In this review, we present a brief summary of the main types of protein microarrays (antibody microarrays, reverse-phase protein microarrays, and protein microarrays) and their application for protein change detection in chronic ocular diseases such as dry eye, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. The validation of these specific protein changes in eye pathologies may lead to the identification of new biomarkers, depiction of ocular disease pathways, and assistance in the diagnosis, prognosis, and development of new therapeutic options for eye pathologies.