Psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders such as schizophrenia (SCZ), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) continue to grow around the world with a high impact on health, social, and economic outcomes for the patient and society. Despite efforts, the etiology and pathophysiology of these disorders remain unclear. Omics technologies have contributed to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie these complex disorders and have suggested novel potential targets for treatment and diagnostics. Here, we have highlighted the unique and common pathways shared between SCZ, PD, and AD and highlight the main proteomic findings over the last 5 years using in vitro models, postmortem brain samples, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood of patients. These studies have identified possible therapeutic targets and disease biomarkers. Further studies including target validation, the use of large sample sizes, and the integration of omics findings with bioinformatics tools are required to provide a better comprehension of pharmacological targets.