Fractures are a common and burdensome problem among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are frequently used after kidney transplantation and have been associated with increased fracture risk in the general population. This study aimed to determine whether PPI use is associated with incidence of major fractures in KTRs.
Using the Wisconsin Allograft Recipient Database (WisARD), we identified 155 KTR with a major fracture that occurred at least 12 months after transplantation. Controls were selected using incidence density sampling. Use of PPIs and histamine 2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) during the year prior to the index date were identified.
A total of 155 cases were matched to 685 controls. Within one year prior to the index date, 68% of cases and 52% of controls used a PPI, and 16% of cases and 11% of controls used a H2RA. PPI use was associated with higher incidence of major fractures in unadjusted analysis (OR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.6-3.5) and in adjusted analyses controlling for demographic and transplant-related covariates and use of corticosteroids, bisphosphonates, vitamin D and calcium supplements (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-3.1). H2RA use was not associated with incidence of major fractures in adjusted analyses (OR 1.0, 95% CI: 0.5-1.8). The associations between PPI use and fractures remained similar in analyses limited to spine and hip fracture.
Use of PPIs, but not H2RAs, is associated with higher risk of major fractures among KTRs. Clinicians should individualize PPI use in KTR, evaluating the risks and benefits of prescribing and continuing PPIs in KTRs.