We sought to understand clinician-level barriers to providing HPV vaccination to survivors of childhood and young adult cancers (CYACs). We conducted 30-minute qualitative interviews with primary care and specialty clinicians who care for survivors of CYACs at our academic medical center. Blinded reviewers analyzed transcripts and used an inductive approach to identify barriers to vaccination in this population. We conducted 24 interviews ( = 11 primary care clinicians,  = 13 oncology clinicians). Thematic analysis revealed that primary care clinicians are universally viewed as holding ultimate responsibility for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among survivors of CYACs. Both primary care and oncology clinicians believed vague, inconsistent HPV guidelines engendered uncertainty toward HPV vaccination’s role and timing following completion of CYAC therapies. As such, compared with other vaccines, the HPV vaccination is not as consistently offered to survivors. Respondents identified direct guidance from oncologists to primary care clinicians and to patients as a potential strategy for improving HPV vaccination rates in this population. Finally, oncology clinicians frequently deprioritize the issue of preventing second, noniatrogenic cancers and consequently miss opportunities to discuss vaccination’s merits with their patients. Despite not holding ultimate responsibility for vaccination, oncology clinicians have an opportunity to play an important role in ensuring access and overcoming hesitancy among survivors of CYACs. Developing clearer and more collaborative guidelines, helping to integrate vaccination into institutional electronic health record protocols, offering direct guidance to primary care colleagues, and participating in conversations with survivors of CYACs may help improve vaccination rates.