The controlled, prospective intervention study without randomization with a non-inferiority study design investigates the effectiveness of psychoanalytic treatments without medication in comparison to behavioral therapy treatments with and without medication in children aged 6 to 11 years with a diagnosis of ADHD and/or conduct disorder. 73 children (58 boys and 15 girls) were included in the study. Diagnostics before treatment, at end of treatment and at follow-up after 38 months included a standardized clinical interview (DISYPS-KJ), questionnaires for parents, teachers and children (DISYPS-KJ, CBCL, TRF, CPRS, CTRS, ILK), intelligence test and behavioral observation of the child. Primary outcome criterion was disorder-specific symptom reduction at end of treatment and follow-up. Both treatment groups showed significant symptom reductions at end of treatment and at follow-up. There were no significant differences between treatment groups. Parent and teacher ratings showed significant improvements in both groups at end of treatment and at follow-up on the ADHD index, oppositional behavior, and hyperactivity/impulsivity scales, as well as on the externalizing and internalizing behavior problems scales. Quality of life improved for children in both treatment groups.