A stochastic quantitative risk assessment model was developed to estimate the annual probability of introduction of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) on 127 dairy farms through indirect contacts. Vehicles transporting calves, cattle to slaughterhouse, dead animals, and mixture of feed, as well as visits by veterinarians and hoof trimmers, farm workers and contacts with neighbors were considered in the model. Data from biosecurity questionnaires of each farm, scientific literature and expert opinion from field veterinarians, animal vehicle drivers, hoof trimmers and personnel from rendering transport companies were used to estimate values for input parameters. Results showed that the annual probability of introducing BVDV or BoHV-1 through indirect contacts was very heterogeneous. The overall distribution of median values for each farm ranged from 0.5 to 14.6% and from 1.0 to 24.9% for BVDV and BoHV-1, respectively. The model identified that providing protective clothing and boots to visits, not allowing the animal vehicle driver to come into contact with animals present on the farm and ensuring that calf vehicles arrived empty, were the measures with the highest impact on the probability of infection for most farms. This model could be a useful tool to show the impact of the measures to farmers and veterinarians, thus increasing their awareness on biosecurity. In addition, it could support decision making on which measures should be prioritized in dairy cattle herds to reduce the probability of introduction of diseases.
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