Decrepitude and apoptosis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to inhibited osteogenic differentiation, causing decreased bone density and osteoporosis. Quercetin, a bioactive component of Solanum muricatum extracts, promotes the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and ameliorates the symptoms of osteoporosis in vivo. However, the detailed mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. The study aims to reveal the regulatory mechanism of quercetin in BMSCs. Mouse BMSCs (mBMSCs) were isolated from the bone marrow and characterized by flow cytometry. QRT-PCR and western blot assays were performed to evaluate the expression levels of related genes and proteins. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and Oil Red O staining of lipids were used to estimate the osteogenesis and adipogenesis levels of mBMSCs, respectively. Quercetin treatment (2 and 5 μM) induced significant upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, SOD1 and SOD2, in mBMSCs. Quercetin promoted osteogenic differentiation and inhibited adipogenic differentiation of mBMSCs. Quercetin treatment enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK protein and upregulated the expression of SIRT1, thus activating the AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway in mBMSCs. Quercetin promoted osteogenic differentiation and antioxidant responses of mBMSCs by activating the AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway.© 2021 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.