Chest radiology provides an opportunity to better understand the diagnostic characteristics of e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury (EVALI). This systematic review aimed to summarize the radiological findings associated with EVALI reported in the literature.
This systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Electronic searches of MEDLINE®, CINAHL, Embase® and CENTRAL were conducted in February 2020. Included were all English-language studies reporting radiological findings of EVALI. Data was synthesized using descriptive statistics.
Thirty studies comprising 184 participants were included. Mean patient age was 24.5 years old. The majority (n = 141, 76.6%) of included patients were male. The most common radiological features reported on chest x-ray were bilateral infiltrates (n = 64, 41.3%) and ground glass opacities (n = 17, 11.0%), and on chest CT were bilateral infiltrates (n = 62, 36.9%), bilateral ground glass opacities (n = 56, 33.3%), subpleural sparing (n = 29, 17.3%), pleural effusions (n = 14, 8.3%), and centrilobular nodularity (n = 13, 7.7%). Of patients with follow-up data reported (n = 81), only 28.4% (n = 23) had complete resolution of symptoms or radiological findings.
Chest radiology is the cornerstone of diagnosis and monitoring of EVALI. A wide variety of radiological findings highlight the need for standardisation of terminology in the radiological descriptions of EVALI. Common findings included bilateral infiltrates and ground glass opacities. Higher quality evidence is warranted to help develop evidenced-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of EVALI.

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