To report on a rebound phenomenon after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) injection for macular edema secondary to diabetic retinopathy (DR) and central or branch retinal vein occlusion (CRVO/BRVO).
The data were analysed retrospectively. Complete ophthalmic examinations including spectral domain optical coherence tomography were performed before and two months after IVTA injection. The incidence of a rebound phenomeon was defined as an increase in central retinal thickness of >10% from baseline at two months after IVTA injection.
This retrospective study included 211 consecutive patients (268 eyes). One hundred ninety (71.2%), 39 (14.6%) and 39 (14.6%) eyes had ME due to DR, CRVO, and BRVO. In total, 9.7% of the eyes showed a rebound phenomenon (DR: 9.5%, CRVO: 5.2%, BRVO: 15.4%). The mean number of prior injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor or corticosteroid agent was statistically significantly higher in the rebound group: 6.8 vs. 5.3 than in the non-rebound group (p=0.01).
Our study shows that 9.7% of the eyes with ME secondary to DR and RVO developed a rebound phenomenon following IVTA injection, limiting its therapeutic effect. We found an increased number of prior intravitreal pharmacotherapy to be a risk factor for a rebound phenomenon.

© 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel.