Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Given the opioid crisis and emergence of drug-resistant organisms, we sought to examine annual trends in hospitalization rates for IE and potential epidemiologic shift in the causative microorganisms among patients with and without injection drug use (IDU).
This was a single-center retrospective study of hospitalized adults with IE. Annual trends in hospitalization rates were calculated (2011-2018), and patient characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared according to IDU status.
Our cohort of 244 hospitalized patients with IE had a subset of 112 with IDU. The annual hospitalization rate for IE increased almost four-fold and was most notable among patients with IDU. The highest increase occurred in patients with Staphylococcus aureus-associated IE. Patients with IDU were younger, and more likely to be women with tricuspid valve vegetations and have IE due to methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Patients without IDU were more likely to have central venous catheters with mitral and aortic valve vegetations and have IE due to Streptococcus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species. Patients without IDU had a higher requirement for cardiac surgery and higher 90-day mortality. Age was the only independent variable associated with 90-day mortality.
The rising incidence of IE in younger and older persons is driven in part by the opioid public health crisis and higher prevalence of indwelling central venous catheters, respectively. Timely treatment of opioid use disorders and stewardship surrounding use of central venous catheters is urgently needed.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.