The French Society of Surgery has endorsed a cohort aiming to prospectively assess the frequency of recurrence after incisional hernia repair and to identify the risk factors.
Consecutive patients undergoing incisional hernia repair in the participating centers were included in the prospective French Society of Surgery cohort over a 6-month period. Patients were followed up with a computed tomography scan at 1 y and a clinical assessment by the surgeon at 2 years.
A total of 1,075 patients undergoing incisional hernia repair were included in 61 participating centers. The median follow-up was 24.0 months (interquartile range: 14.0-25.3). The follow-up rates were 83.0% and 68.5% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The recurrence rates were 18.1% at 1 year and 27.7% at 2 years. Recurrence risk factors at 2 years were a history of hernia (odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-2.35, P = .028), a lateral hernia (odds ratio = 1.84, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-2.86, P = .007), a concomitant digestive operation (odds ratio = 1.97, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-3.22, P = .007), and the occurrence of early surgical site complications (odds ratio = 1,90, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-3.38, P = .030). The use of surgical mesh was strongly associated with a lower risk of recurrence at 2 years (P < .001).
After incisional hernia repair, the 2-year recurrence rate is as high as 27.7%. History of hernia, lateral hernia, concomitant digestive operation, the onset of surgical site complications, and the absence of mesh are strong risk factors for recurrence.

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