Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a disorder of the inner ear with a high rate of recurrence. Vascular disorders, migraine and autoimmune disorders have been considered facilitating factors for relapsing episodes. Our aim was to assess the role of vascular disorders, migraine and anti-thyroid antibodies in patients with recurrences.
We retrospectively analysed records of 3042 patients treated for BPPV without other lifetime vertigo. Clinical data included previous vascular disorders of the central nervous system, heart disorders, migraine and recent head trauma. The presence of anti-thyroid autoantibodies was assessed in all patients.
Mean age of the first BPPV was 52.8 ± 14.5 years; there were 2339 females (76.9%), while 2048 (67.3%) of patients presented recurrences within two years of follow-up. Previous disorders of the central nervous system, presence of anti-thyroid antibodies, head trauma and migraine showed an association with recurrences. Above all, in subjects having the first BPPV while aged between 40 and 60 years, anti-thyroid antibodies were predictive for recurrences.
Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that anti-thyroid autoantibodies may play a role in recurrences in subjects with initial manifestations between 40 and 60 years.

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