Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been associated with altered brain anatomy in neuroimaging studies. However, small and heterogeneous study samples, and the use of region-of-interest and tissue-specific analyses have limited the consistency and replicability of these effects. We used a data-driven multivariate approach to investigate neuroanatomical features associated with ADHD in two independent cohorts: the Dutch NeuroIMAGE cohort (n = 890, 17.2 years) and the Brazilian IMpACT cohort (n = 180, 44.2 years). Using independent component analysis of whole-brain morphometry images, 375 neuroanatomical components were assessed for association with ADHD. In both discovery (corrected-p = 0.0085) and replication (p = 0.032) cohorts, ADHD was associated with reduced volume in frontal lobes, striatum, and their interconnecting white-matter. Current results provide further evidence for the role of the fronto-striatal circuit in ADHD in children, and for the first time show its relevance to ADHD in adults. The fact that the cohorts are from different continents and comprise different age ranges highlights the robustness of the findings.
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