The objective of this project is to decrease the rates of midstream urine sample contamination through standardization of evidence-based techniques among nurses.
Urinary tract infection is a prevalent health problem worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection depend on a thorough physical examination and the results of an uncontaminated midstream specimen of urine. However, improper techniques used in the collection often cause sample contamination, leading to delayed diagnosis and the use of inappropriate antibiotics for treatment. As nurses are at the forefront of care delivery, they are involved in reducing the rates of midstream urine sample contamination. Thus, the use of an evidence-based approach to standardize collection of midstream urine culture is crucial for the provision of higher-quality patient care.
Education sessions were delivered to the nurses and an evidence-informed standardized patient education leaflet was crafted by the project team for implementation. With a sample size of 30 nurses and patients, the project took place in a 21-bed adult surgical ward in a hospital in Singapore. The JBI Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System (JBI PACES) and Getting Research into Practice (GRiP) programs were used to implement the evidence-based project. The project was implemented in three phases from October 2018 to January 2019. A standardized audit tool devised from JBI PACES was used for the audits in this project. The rates of midstream urine specimen contamination and the knowledge of nurses were also monitored.
The baseline audit revealed that the nursing staff required educational sessions to improve their knowledge of midstream urine sample collection. Aside from criteria 1,3 and 4, the remaining criteria achieved compliance of more than 80%. The criteria below 80% compliance became the main focus of the project interventions. At follow-up cycle 1, all criteria achieved at least 80% compliance except criteria 4 and 5, which achieved 73% and 69% compliance, respectively. At the three-month post implementation audit, all criteria achieved a compliance rate of at least 80%. Fisher’s exact test was carried out, and statistical significance of the results was achieved (p < 0.001) when compared to baseline audit. The rates of midstream urine specimen contamination also significantly decreased from 40% at the baseline audit to 20% at the third-month post implementation audit. Nurses' knowledge markedly improved as measured by the three-question quiz.
This evidence-based implementation project highlights the effectiveness of the JBI PACES and GRiP processes for initiating best practice within a nursing environment. The use of JBI best-practice recommendations to standardize methods for midstream urine specimen collection effectively reduced the rates of midstream urine contamination.