Measurement error arises through a variety of mechanisms. A rich literature exists on the bias introduced by covariate measurement error and on methods of analysis to address this bias. By comparison, less attention has been given to errors in outcome assessment and nonclassical covariate measurement error. We consider an extension of the regression calibration method to settings with errors in a continuous outcome, where the errors may be correlated with prognostic covariates or with covariate measurement error. This method adjusts for the measurement error in the data and can be applied with either a validation subset, on which the true data are also observed (eg, a study audit), or a reliability subset, where a second observation of error prone measurements are available. For each case, we provide conditions under which the proposed method is identifiable and leads to consistent estimates of the regression parameter. When the second measurement on the reliability subset has no error or classical unbiased measurement error, the proposed method is consistent even when the primary outcome and exposures of interest are subject to both systematic and random error. We examine the performance of the method with simulations for a variety of measurement error scenarios and sizes of the reliability subset. We illustrate the method’s application using data from the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.