The association of nephropathy with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) has been reported previously. However, there is limited information on the relationship between thyroid autoantibodies and nephropathy. A retrospective study was conducted using the medical records of 246 patients with nephropathy, 82 of whom had concurrent AITD. General characteristics, thyroid function, autoantibodies, and the pathological types of nephropathy were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the thyroglobulin antibody (TG-Ab) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) in the kidneys. We found nephropathy patients with AITD exhibited higher serum levels of TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TR-Ab), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) (P < .05). Compared with the nephropathy without AITD group, the nephropathy with AITD group exhibited higher proportions of membranous nephropathy (MN) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and relatively lower proportions of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) and minimal change nephropathy (MCN) (P = .005). TPO-Ab and TG-Ab levels in the kidney were more prevalent in nephropathy patients with AITD than those without AITD (P = .015 and P = .026, respectively). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), TG-Ab, TPO-Ab, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and IgG in the MN group were significantly higher, whereas the levels of free thyroxine (FT4) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were lower, as compared with MN with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) group (P < .05). TPO-Ab and TG-Ab expression levels in the kidneys were more prevalent in the MN group than in the MN with HT group (P = .034). The expression levels of FT4, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab, and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TSHR-Ab) in the serum were significantly higher in the MN group than in the MN with Graves disease (GD) group (P < .05). The expression of TPO-Ab in the kidneys was more prevalent in the MN group than in the MN with GD group (P = .011). In sum, the expressions of TPO-Ab and TG-Ab were more prevalent in the kidneys of patients with nephropathy and AITD. Our findings indicate that TPO-Ab and TG-Ab may play a role in the development of AITD-related nephropathy.
Copyright © 2021 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.